時事英文》球王喬科維奇可「入境」打澳網

知名網球好手喬科維奇(Novak Djokovic)為參加今年一月的澳洲網球公開賽,在上周抵達澳洲,卻因為簽證和疫苗問題,到昨日都還滯留在澳洲的飯店,可能與澳網無緣。但今天(10日)整起事件大反轉,法官在聽證會宣布推翻取消喬科維奇簽證的決定,世界球王當庭獲釋並可續留澳洲參加比賽。究竟整起事件的原起為何呢?讓我們來從相關新聞學英文!

On December 22, 2021, the FDA authorized an oral antiviral pill, called Paxlovid, for the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in people ages 12 and older who are at increased risk for severe illness. The treatment is available by prescription only, after a positive COVID-19 test and within five days of symptom onset. (Harvard Health Publishing)
(12月22號美國食藥署授權核准一款治療輕度到中度、12歲以上新冠肺炎患者的口服抗毒藥物Paxlovid。這項須經醫生開立處方的治療僅適用於COVID-19 檢測呈陽性,且為初期症狀(5天內)的患者。)

一、怎麼描述這起事件?

要描述一則新聞最重要的訣竅,就是第一句話要先說明發生的事情,因此「人名」與「發生的狀況」就是兩個關鍵。本次新聞中,「球王喬科維奇被拒絕入境」就是新聞的重點。「入境」的動詞是enter,名詞為entry,拒絕則使用「否認」字意的deny。因此可以這樣描述:

Tennis star Novak Djokovic was denied entry to Australia after landing in Melbourne this week.
(網球明星Novak Djokovic本周於墨爾本降落之後被拒絕入境。)

His entry to the building will be denied for good.
(他將永遠被禁止進入這棟大樓。)

喬科維奇遭拒絕入境後並非待在防疫旅館(quarantine hotel),因為防疫旅館是給可能入境,但需要隔離的旅客所使用。對於不確定是否能入境,但也要先隔離起來的旅館,稱為隔離中心(detention center)。detention在學校中指的就是「留校察看」,但在法律上的意思為「拘留」,近年知名電影「返校」就是以detention為名。

入境(immigration)不論在一般英文語境或多益測驗都經常出現。原本的字根是migrate「遷徙」,加上e往外就成了「移出」;im往內就成了「移入」。表格比較如下:

原型字根

移出

移入

Migrate 遷徙

Emigrate v.

Emigrant n. 移民(出)

Emigration n.

Immigrate v.

Immigrant n. 移民(入)

Immigration n.

Migratory bird 候鳥

He will stay in an immigration detention center before the court ruling comes out Today.
(他在今天法院判決出來前都要待在移民居留中心。)

Immigrant population has hit a new record high last month.
(移民數量在上月創新高。)


二、事情是怎麼發生的?

相信很多讀者一定會很好奇,比賽這麼重要,怎麼會在入境的時候才被攔下來呢?其實主因就是「醫療豁免權」出問題。在我們介紹成因之前,先來聊聊什麼叫做「豁免」?

「豁免」的英文是exempt,名詞是exemption。疫情期間樹立了許多規範,而當exempt一詞出現,就表示這個個體可以免於此規範的限制。澳洲「醫療豁免」制度允許過去個月感染新冠病毒並康復者,可免除提交疫苗施打證明就可以入境。

Djokovic was granted a medical exemption to compete in the Australian Open as he had recently recovered from COVID-19.
(喬科維奇最近剛從COVID-19中康復,因此獲得了參加澳洲公開賽的醫療豁免。)

Emergency services workers are exempt from isolation rules. 
(緊急服務工作人員可免受隔離規範。)

這樣的規則聽起來沒有問題,本次事件的主角也確實剛從COVID-19中康復,那問題出在哪?除了根據墨爾本媒體《The Age》指出,喬科維奇在機場時似乎拿不出文件證明他的豁免原因。另一個理由則是下面這句:

The controversy stems from the Australian government’s insistence that a recent infection only offers an exemption for residents.
(這樣的爭端源於澳洲政府堅持近期僅為受感染的居民提供豁免權。)

這句話中有很多個重要的詞語,其一是controversy。verse是語詞,字首「contro-」是「相反」的意思,所以會造成相反的語詞,就是「爭議」了。

There will be no controversial topics in TOEIC Tests.
(在TOEIC測驗中不會有爭議性主題。)

stem是「枝枒」,所以stem from就是「延伸出來」的意思。

Experts suspect that the recent COVID cases may stem from holiday gatherings.
(專家懷疑近期的COVID案例可能源於假期聚會。)

resident是「居民」,動詞為reside,在多益測驗中最常出現的是名詞residence。

A Green Card holder (permanent resident) is someone who has been granted authorization to live and work in the United States on a permanent basis.
(綠卡持有者(永久居民)就是被賦予可於美國永久居住與工作的人。)


三、後續發展

目前喬科維奇的律師有兩項訴求,一是獲得短期簽證,二是立刻換到更適合練習的旅館。

Djokovic’s lawyers argue that he had been granted a temporary visa by Tennis Australia, and should be relocated to a more suitable place to practice more before the Australia Open.
(喬科維奇的律師主張他已經從澳洲網球協會處獲得短期簽證,且應在澳網開始前重新安置到更適合練習的處所。)

temporary的主要字根來自於tempo,字根表示「時間」,單字的意思則為「節拍」。所以temporary就是「暫時」的意思,temporary visa也就代表「短期簽證」。

relocate的主要字根來自於locate,字首「re-」是「重新」的意思。locate當動詞時是「找到事物」的意思,當名詞location則為「位置」,relocate也因此有「重新換個位置」的意思。

A typical relocation package usually covers all costs incurred with moving.
(典型的搬遷補貼通常涵蓋所有搬家時產生的費用。)

澳洲公開賽將於1月17日舉辦,希望在防疫不會造成破口的前提下,看到世界好手都能為觀眾帶來精彩的表現。


【多益模擬試題】

Tennis star Novak Djokovic was denied entry to Australia after landing in Melbourne this week. As a result, he may not play in the upcoming Australian Open. Djokovic is currently the top-ranked tennis player. He will stay in an immigration detention center before the court ruling comes out the following Monday (2021/01/10).

Djokovic had a vaccine exemption to enter Australia even though his COVID-19 infection was confirmed by a PCR test on the 16th of December, 2021. Documents published on Saturday by Australia’s Federal Circuit Court show that Djokovic was granted a medical exemption to compete in the Australian Open as he had recently recovered from COVID-19. Djokovic’s visa was canceled on the 6th of January under Section 116(1)(e) of the Migration Act, which “allows for the cancellation of a visa where the holder poses a risk to the health, safety or good order of the Australian community, or to an individual within the Australian community.” The controversy stems from the Australian government’s insistence that a recent infection only offers an exemption for residents.

Djokovic’s lawyers argue the player had been granted a temporary visa by Tennis Australia. His lawyers also say that he should be relocated to a more suitable place to practice more before the Australia Open. However, Serbian Prime Minister Ana Brnabic agreed that Djokovic should stay in the designated hotel until the final decision is made.

The Australian Open begins on the 17th of January in Melbourne. Djokovic will have less than a week to be there for the big game.

1.Djokovic is denied entry to Australia because
(A) he was recently diagnosed with COVID-19
(B) he did not have visa granted by the Australia Tennis
(C) serbian Prime Minister did not allow him to enter
(D) the Australia government believes that he may pose risk

2.According to the article, which is correct?
(A) It will be clear if Djokovic gets to play in Australia Open on the 17th of January
(B) Djokovic did not have exemption to compete in Australia Open
(C) Djokovic was PCR-tested positive for COVID-19 in December, 2021
(D) Djokovic is staying in the hotel suitable for his training before the Australia Open

解析:

1. 正解為(D)。句意為「喬科維奇被澳洲拒絕入境的原因是」。(A)最近確診反而是他擁有免除權的原因。(B)澳洲網球協會確有發Visa,但於1月6日取消了。(C) Serbia首相並未反對,而是表示應該要依照法院裁決。因此(D)「澳洲政府認為他可能構成風險」與文章內法條所述相符,為正確答案。

2. 正解為(C)。根據文章,哪一句是正確的?(A)不會等到開賽日17日,而是周一10日就會有答案。(B)第二段中有明確描述原本是有免除的。(C)第三段中表明目前所處的旅館並不適合,所以要求更換至可以訓練的旅館成為了律師的其中一點訴求。故應選答案為(C)。

文/李海碩


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