美國「通膨」創30年新高 英文怎麼說

近年來全球物價上漲,美國10月通膨率更創下30年來新高,大漲的物價讓消費者吃不消;回頭看台灣,雖然有不少民眾反映對物價上漲相當有感,但央行總裁楊金龍表示,台灣因疫情控制得宜,較無歐美等經濟體勞動市場緊繃、貨運輸入港口阻塞等供應鏈瓶頸,待國際原油供需失調緩解,通膨壓力可望逐漸紓解,因此台灣不會有停滯性通膨的問題。今天我們就來看看國外媒體如何看待未來通膨現象,並從相關報導學英文吧!

America is emerging from the pandemic facing its biggest inflationary spike in decades, as startling and persistent price hikes threaten to undermine the recovery, while posing an entirely new kind of economic challenge to the Biden presidency. (washingtonpost)
(美國正面臨數十年來最大的通脹膨脹,當驚人、價格持續上漲的威脅將危及經濟重建,同時也會對拜登政府構成全新的經濟挑戰。)

inflationary spike「通膨上漲」

inflationary是inflation (n)的形容詞變化,inflate是字尾「-ate」的動詞,意思是「充氣、膨脹」;另一個形容詞變化則是inflatable,字尾「-able」有「能夠…、可以…的」意思,因此代表「能夠充氣」,如inflatable pillows/mattresses可充氣的枕頭、床墊。這裡則是延伸到經濟上的用法,就是所謂的「通貨膨脹」。

We watch the hot-air balloon slowly inflate.
(我們看著熱氣球慢慢脹大。)

spike在此用作名詞,有「高數量、高價格」的意思;當動詞時,則指「上升至非常高的(價格或程度)」。

If price spikes continue, people will not be able to afford the new houses they want.
(如果價格持續上漲,人們將無力購買想要的新屋。)

The jobless rate in October spiked to a five-year high.
(十月份的失業率上升至五年來的最高點。)

spike (n)的另一個解釋為「尖頭、尖頭物」;形容詞變化spiky則有「尖刺的」意思,如spiky leaves「 帶刺的葉子」、spiky hair「 刺蝟髮型」等;spike用作動詞時代表「刺穿」。

Some types of dinosaurs had sharp spikes on their tails.
(有些種類的恐龍尾部有鋒利的尖突。)

​​She got badly spiked when one of the runners trod on her heel.
(當一名跑步選手踩到她的後腳跟時,她被嚴重紮傷了。)


price hikes「 價格上漲」

hike是個常見的單字,經常解釋為「健行」,但同時也有價格或費用大幅提高、增加」之意。

The recent hike in train fares came as a shock to commuters.
(最近火車票價的上漲讓通勤的人們十分震驚。)

Retailers have hiked (up) prices again.
(零售商再次提高了價格。)

由於hike有「往上升」的意思,因此介系詞up可以省略。

undermine (v)「破壞、危害、削弱」。是由under「在下面」加上mine「挖掘、挖礦」整合的複合字,因此往下挖掘就是「破壞、削弱結構」的意思。

Criticism just undermines their confidence.
(批評只是削弱了他們的信心。)

Policymakers are facing the devilish and unfamiliar quandary of booming consumer demand and dramatic supply disruptions combining to push higher the cost of necessities such as food, gas and housing. (washingtonpost)
(立法委員正面臨消費需求旺盛和供應嚴重中斷的可怕而陌生的困境,這兩者共同促使民生必需品如物價、油價和房價上漲。


booming consumer demand「上升的消費者需求」

boom (v)是「上升」的意思,如baby boom「嬰兒潮」用來形容二戰結束後突然上漲的出生率,因此boom同時可以解釋為「蓬勃發展、蒸蒸日上」。consumer則是多益測驗常見單字,動詞consume就是「消費」的意思,consumption則是「-tion」的名詞變化,指的是「消費行為或現象」等。

demand解釋為「要求、需求」,可作動詞或名詞,形容詞demanding則是現在分詞變化,和booming同理用法,意思是「高要求的、令人費心的」。

As a nation, our consumption of junk food is horrifying.
(我們整個國家對垃圾食品的消費量十分驚人。)

I demanded an explanation.
(我要求給我一個解釋。)

She’s a very demanding child.
(她是個令人費心的孩子。)


dramatic supply disruptions「嚴重的供給中斷」

dramatic (a)來自於drama (n),是「戲劇性」的意思,經常用在數據分析時表達劇烈的概念,副詞dramatically更是常見,如dramatically decrease「 急遽減少」。supply是多益測驗高頻出現的單字,是「供給」的意思,可作名詞或動詞使用,如food supply 「食物供給」;而supplier (n)則是「供應商」的意思。

disruption (n)「擾亂、中斷」來自於動詞disrupt,字尾「-tion」是名詞變化,而形容詞則是「-tive」字尾。

Heavy snow disrupted travel into the city this morning.
(今晨的大雪擾亂了入城交通系統的正常運作。)


【多益模擬試題】

GOLDEN VALLEY UNIVERSITY
CAMPANALE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

Golden Valley University is committed to the personal growth of all faculty, staff, and students through discussion and debate in a scholarly community. We hope that this year’s Campanale Distinguished Lecturer Series, named in honor of Golden Valley’s former president Jackie Campanale, will stimulate and energize the Golden Valley community.

    Tuesday, February 15
                       Dr. Ada N. Chamberlain
                       Professor of art history

Dr. Ada N. Chamberlain will lecture about the commercial art market in seventeenth-century Holland. Author of the prize-winning book Remberandt and the Art of Portraiture, Dr. Chamberlain is a professor of art history at Packard University.

      Tuesday, April 18
                         Mr. Alvin Hewing
                         Poet and Author

Mr. Alvin Hewing will read from one of his latest collections, Someday: New and Selected Poems. Mr. Hewing is the author of ten books of poetry. He holds a master’s degree in comparative Literature from a major university in France.

      Tuesday, May 2
                         Dr. Charles Kenyon
                         Professor of astronomy

Amazing new developments in astronomy have begun to show us the origins of the universe and what may be its fate. Dr. Kenyon, who earned his Ph. D. from Stewart University, is a professor of astronomy at Roget College.

1.What is the main purpose of the lecture series?
(A) To aid in the personal development of members of the university community
(B) To explore current issues in a particular field of study
(C) To generate interest in the university with residents in surrounding areas
(D) To settle an ongoing debate among university scholars

2.Who will read aloud selections from a book?
(A) Jackie Campanale                     (B) Ada Chamberlain
(C) Alvin Hewing                             (D) Charles Kenyon

3.Which topic will NOT be addressed in the lecture series?
(A) Contemporary poetry              (B) French literature
(C) The history of Dutch art          (D) The beginning of the universe

解析:

1. 正解(A)。本題問「這次系列演講的主要目的為何?」根據第一段內文「我們期望今年的Companale傑出系列演講,為了紀念黃金谷大學的前校長Jackie Campanale而得名,將能夠激化並且活化我們的社群。」這裡的激化、活化和第一句所說的「黃金谷大學致力於藉由學術上的討論和辯論協助教職員員工和學生的個人成長」互相回應。故(A) 為正解。

2. 正解(C)。第二題問「誰會大聲朗讀一本書的摘取內容?」從後方系列演講的內容來看,第二個演講簡介提到Mr. Alvin Hewing will read from one of his latest collections(Alvin先生會朗讀他最近出版的著作內容)。故(C) 為正解。 3. 正解(B)。第三題問「哪個議題不會成為此次系列演講內容?」本題用刪去法來答題。先看第一個演講者的內容,可知(C)不可選,Dutch是荷蘭的形容詞。而第二個演講者會朗讀自己著作內容,從書名可得知(A)也不能選,由於此詩集是演講者本身作品,因此回應contemporary現代的概念。而第三位演講者的主題也可以得知(D)不可選,因此(B)法國文學是沒有提到的。故(B) 為正解。

文/Buffy Kao


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