知名習慣養成專家、紐時暢銷作者，著有暢銷書《原子習慣：細微改變帶來巨大成就的實證法則Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones》，已翻譯為40種以上不同語言，在全球銷售超過一百萬本。
在1% Better Every Day這場演講中，詹姆斯‧克利爾先分享了英國單車隊的故事。約2000年代時，英國單車隊從未贏過環法自由車賽，而後他們雇用了Dave Brailsford想扭轉劣勢。這位教練認為，在每件事情中做到1% improvement，最後就能達成目標。Dave Brailsford除了對車隊進行基本訓練、改善裝備，還測試了最適合車手的訓練方式，甚至車手睡哪一種枕頭最舒適，就帶著出賽。他原本預期在5年內帶領車隊拿下環法自由車賽，沒想到在第二年就奪牌，印證了每日的improvement ，接著成為tiny habits，進而形塑了我們的表現。
“If you were able to improve by 1% each day for an entire year and those gains compound, you would end up 37 times better at the end of the year.”
…everybody wants a transformation, right? Everybody wants a radical improvement, and rapid success, but we fail to realize that small habits and little choices are transforming us every day already. That the times when you make a choice is slightly better, slightly worse, a little mistake, or a small error, 1% better or 1% worse that these things compound over time.
And habits are the compound interest of self-improvement. Good habits make time your ally. Bad habits make time your enemy.
…there are four stages of habit formation. I’m going to take you through each of those four. All right. So the four stages are: Noticing, Wanting, Doing, and Liking.
So one of my favorite things about noticing, and one of my favorite strategies for discussing it, it’s called Implementation Intentions. And there are hundreds of studies on this… And this is the insight: many people think that they lack motivation, when what they really lack is clarity. They think that they need to get more motivated and that they need willpower in order to execute on a habit. If I just felt like writing, if I just felt like meditating, if I felt like working out, then I would do it.
But in fact, they don’t have a plan for it, so they wake up each day thinking, “I wonder if I’ll feel motivated to write today,” “wonder if I’ll feel motivated to workout today.” But instead you can take the decision-making out of it by explicitly stating when, where, and how you want to implement the habit.
So here’s how I did this with my writing habit. I decided that on November 12, 2012 which was a Monday if you check, that was going to be the first day that I published an article. And I was going to publish every Monday and every Thursday. That was my implementation intention. That was my specific plan.
Didn’t matter how good or how bad it was; it didn’t matter how long or how short it was. It didn’t matter how I felt about it. If all I could do was write three good sentences that day, then that was getting published.
But I did that, and I did it for three years. And that was how the site grew. It was just that core habit that drove the growth.
So here’s a little strategy that I like to use to make sure you can come up with a better plan of action. And it’s called the Failure Pre-Mortem.
So the way that it works is you think about the habit, the project, the goal, whatever the most important thing is that you want to work on. And I want you to imagine fast forward six months from now and you fail, and then tell the story of why you failed, what happened, what challenges did you encounter? What was that took you off course?
When I do this with businesses, sometimes we call the kill the company exercise. So everybody sits around, thinks about ways to kill the company in the next six months.
And once you have all that stuff laid out on the table in front of you, you can start to make better choices about how to develop a plan. You can start to have if-then plans.
這邊介紹一個小策略，讓大家更知道如何制定計劃，這個策略叫做 Failure Pre-Mortem
One of the most overlooked drivers of habits and human behavior is our physical environment.
Many of our desires are simply shaped because we have an environment that shapes us in that way.
But if you’re constantly fighting against those forces, it’s going to be very hard to follow through.
So don’t rely on willpower and self-control. It’s a lot easier to stick to better habits when you’re presented with better options, right?
You want to read more? When you make your bed in the morning, take the book you want to read and put it on top of your pillow. When you come back that night, pick it up, read a few pages, and go to sleep.
So the core idea here is that you want to put more steps between you and the bad behaviors, and fewer steps between you and the good behaviors. And it is far easier to stick to good habits if you are living in an environment that is inclined to push you in that direction.
So often when we think about habits, goals, routines, achievements; it’s all about the milestone. We think about how much weight we want to lose, how much money we want to earn, and how many subscribers we want to have; it’s all fixed on the finish line.
But instead if you can optimize for the starting line and make it as easy as possible to get started, often the outcomes just come as a natural result. …that means learning how to start is incredibly important.
I want to give you a little strategy for doing that. I’d like to call it the Two-Minute Rule.
… if it takes two minutes, just do it now. So like throwing in the laundry or washing a dish or calling somebody back, it takes two minutes or less, just do it right away; don’t plan it; don’t wait; just do it now.
So the only reason that we repeat behaviors is because we enjoy them and because we like the reward. If we don’t enjoy the experience along the way, we’re unlikely to stick with it.
And that means that you need to figure out ways to bring a reward into the present moment, because good habits have a problem. And that problem is that for good habits, the immediate consequence is there. There’s a cost that happens in the moment but the reward is often delayed.
If I go to the gym now, it’s cost me time and energy and effort. But the reward is I’ll be fit three months from now or not get sick ten years from now or so on. The reward is delayed.
Bad habits are often the reverse. If I eat a doughnut right now, the benefit is that it tastes great and I get a hit of sugar and it’s awesome. And the consequence is delayed, right? I get overweight three weeks from now, or three months from now and so on.
So you need to figure out how to bring the reward into the present moment to stick to a good habit. There are many ways to do this, but I’m just going to share one today.
So here’s what I think you should do: get a wall calendar, where you can see every day of the year mapped out on it. And then any day that you do your task, I want you just put an X on that day. And you’ll have a couple false starts here and there. But at some point you’re going to get a little bit of a chain going, right, you get four or five, six, seven, eight days in a row. And at that point your only goal becomes to: don’t break the chain. That’s a way to get an immediate hit and a little bit of a reward by tracking it.
NEVER MISS TWICE
Now I like to add one more thing to this: which is never miss twice. So, many people will get a chain going and then they fall off track and they feel bad about it, feel like oh, I ruined it; I had this great thing and now it’s over. The streak is gone.
But what you find when you look at top performers is not that they don’t make mistakes; they make mistakes just like everybody else, but they can just get back on track more quickly.
The goal is not to run a marathon; it’s to become a runner, to become that type of person, to develop an identity. And the way to being something or becoming someone is through doing something.
Your identity emerges out of the habits that you have.
And so here’s the secret to this talk: it’s not just about getting you to make small changes. It’s not just about putting a book on your pillow. It’s actually by getting you to believe something new about yourself; think what possible; think about yourself.
And habits are not only the method through which we achieve external measures of success, like losing weight, earning more money, or meditating and reducing stress.
They are also the path through which we achieve internal change and actually become someone new. They’re the path through which we forge the identity that we have, the deepest beliefs we have about ourselves and our sense of self.
And so if you can change your habits, you can change your life.
＊節錄自1% Better Every Day
參考資料：國家教育研究員雙語詞彙、學術名詞暨辭書資訊網、博客來、Cambridge Dictionary, The Singju Post, JAMES CLEAR